”Combining all the available data allowed likely identification of individual transmission links between most of the cases (72%)”

One or more etiological agents were detected in 151 out of 232 patients (65.1 %), while we did not detect any etiological agent in 81 (34.9 %). Rotavirus was detected in 96 (63.6 %), adenovirus in 17 (11.2 %), norovirus in 7 (4.6 %), toxin-producing Clostridium difficile in 23 (15.2 %), Salmonella spp. in 15 (9.9 %, B group in 12/15 and D group in 3/15), C. perfringens in 12 (7.9 %), Campylobacter spp. in 6 (4 %), and verotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) in 2 (1.3 %). In 27 children out of 151 (17.9 %), we found evidence of coinfection. Coinfection with rotavirus and toxin-producing C. difficile was the most common (63 %)”

"Patients in the hospital with influenza could potentially spread influenza virus particles as far as 6 feet by air, researchers from Wake Forest University have found, potentially exposing health care workers to small infectious particles."

"In contrast, we detected viruses in 76% of children with fever without an apparent source and identified adenovirus, HHV-6, enterovirus, and parechovirus as the predominant viruses detected in this patient group."

A report describing all known clinical studies linking AdV-36 to obesity and its potential role in childhood obesity.  AdV-36 is likely transmitted via fecal-oral route, and therefore may be a waterborne disease.

A classical “opportunist” versus “gleaner” relationship, where E. coli O157 is the “opportunist”, specialised for growth at high nutrient concentrations (μ max: 0.87 h−1 and K s: 489 μg consumed DOC L−1), and the bacterial community is the “gleaner” adapted to nutrient-poor environments (μ max: 0.33 h−1 and K s: 7.4 μg consumed DOC L−1) was found. “

The results indicate that the ratio of somatic coliphages and phages infecting Bacteroides strain GA17, which is specific to human faecal sources, provides a robust method for discriminating samples, even those presenting different levels and ages of pollution, and allows samples polluted with human faeces to be distinguished from those containing animal faecal pollution. ”

"25 million gallons of untreated but rain-diluted human waste [spilled] into the Little Patuxent River, one of the Chesapeake Bay’s most degraded tributaries."

In an effort to improve upon this method, the U.S. EPA recently developed Method 1615: Measurement of Enterovirus and Norovirus Occurrence in Water by Culture and RT-qPCR. Method 1615 uses a culturable virus assay with reduced equipment and labor costs compared to the ICR virus method and introduces a new molecular assay for detection of enteroviruses and noroviruses by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. ”

A regression model and quantitative microbiological risk assessments (QMRAs) were applied to determine the relative importance of the primary transmission pathways in NE Scotland. Both approaches indicated that waterborne infection was the least important but it was unclear whether food or the environment was the main source of infection. The QMRAs over-predicted the number of cases by a factor of 30 and this could be because all E. coli O157 strains may not be equally infective and/or the level of infectivity in the dose-response model was too high.”